About Us


Daniel Herman, Ph.D

Director of CACTI,
Professor, Silberman School of Social Work at Hunter College CUNY

Silberman School of Social Work at Hunter College CUNY
Trained in both social work and epidemiology, Dr. Herman has led CTI research and dissemination efforts over the past fifteen years. Working with a variety of collaborators, he is involved with developing and testing adaptations of CTI for various populations and service transitions, most recently focusing on improving access to treatment for persons with first episode psychosis. He has partnered with local and state government agencies and managed care organizations on implementing CTI to improve continuity of care for high-risk groups.

Sarah Conover, M.P.H.

Director of CTI Global Network

Silberman School of Social Work at Hunter College CUNY
Ms. Conover, an epidemiologist, was a member of the original team that created CTI. She has since played a primary role in the model’s further development, including the CTI Fidelity Scale. Ms. Conover continues to consult broadly with provider organizations on CTI implementation, adaptation and quality improvement processes. In recent years, she has been instrumental in international dissemination of CTI, including to both high-income countries (Australia, Netherlands, UK) and low- and middle-income countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile).

Rufina Lee, Ph.D.

Associate Director of CACTI,
Professor, Silberman School of Social Work at Hunter College CUNY

Dr. Lee is an Assistant Professor at the Silberman School of Social Work where she teaches masters level courses in the mental health practice area. Dr. Lee’s research focuses on the evaluation of psychosocial interventions for people with serious mental illness and services for people experiencing early episode psychosis, including OnTrack, a coordinated specialty care model for young people experiencing their first episodes of psychosis. Dr. Lee has extensive experience with the CTI model; her involvement began as a doctoral student, working on a randomized trial of CTI with homeless persons being discharged from psychiatric hospitals in New York City. She was also the clinical supervisor for the first CTI program delivered by peer support workers. As CACTI's Associate Director, Dr. Lee continues to investigate aspects of the CTI model and to provide consultation to CTI teams nationally.

Kimberly Livingstone, PhD, MSW

Assistant Professor of Social Work, Plymouth State University

CACTI, Silberman School of Social Work at Hunter College CUNY
Dr. Livingstone helped to implement seven Critical Time Intervention programs across New Hampshire. She continues to support these programs while facilitating the CTI-New Hampshire Community of Practice. Her areas of research interest are homeless services and program management. Her dissertation research explored supportive housing residents’ motivations and barriers to moving out while participating in a Moving On Program.

Bebe Smith, MSW, LCSW

CACTI, Silberman School of Social Work at Hunter College, CUNY
Ms. Smith is a consultant and trainer in Critical Time Intervention. She is a former clinical assistant professor of psychiatry and social work at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. While at UNC, she helped start an early psychosis program in 2005. She consults and trains in evidence-based practices that focus on engagement and humane care for people living with serious mental illness.

Carolyn Hanesworth, LCSW, PhD

Dr. Hanesworth is a Critical Time Intervention Trainer, Researcher, and Consultant.  In addition to her work with CACTI, Dr. Hanesworth is an Assistant Professor of Social Work at Mercy College in Dobbs Ferry, NY. She has worked as a service provider, leader, and consultant for organizations serving homeless children and families in Texas and New York City for the past 25 years.  Recently, she served as the Project Director for the CTI for Rapid Rehousing Pilot Study in Connecticut, where she assisted in adapting and implementing CTI for Rapid Rehousing recipients.

Janice Bainbridge, MSW, LCSW

Clinical Instructor, Center for Excellence in Community Mental Health

University of North Carolina
Ms. Bainbridge has spent her career working with people with co-morbid conditions, who have complex needs, including housing instability, poverty, social isolation, and inadequate health care. For 5 years, she was team lead for the first ‘pilot’ Critical Time Intervention team in NC. Since that time, she has provided teams with CTI training. She is particularly interested in how to engage underserved or unserved populations.

Megan Nizza, MSW

CACTI Program Coordinator

Silberman School of Social Work at Hunter College, CUNY